Installing/New To Linux
- 1 Tutorial: Newbie's Guide to GalliumOS on a Chromebook
- 1.1 Objective
- 1.2 Reasons To Install Linux on a Chromebook
- 1.3 Things to check first
- 1.4 Backup
- 1.5 Chromebook Recovery Media
- 1.6 Create your GalliumOS USB or SD installation drive
- 1.7 Prepare the Chromebook
Tutorial: Newbie's Guide to GalliumOS on a Chromebook
This Tutorial is aimed at people with limited or zero computer programming experience who wish to install Linux GalliumOS on their Chromebook. It is a step-by-step recipe that requires no knowledge in computer programming. Its scope is limited in that it doesn't intend to show you how to install any Linux distribution but only GalliumOS. Furthermore, the user should not attempt to install GalliumOS on a Chromebook that IS NOT on the GalliumOS Hardware Compatibility List. (See below in "Things to check first").
GalliumOS is one of the numerous Linux "distributions". A Linux distribution is a set of software packages with an installation program that allows the user not only to access his or her computer with Linux Operating System (OS) but also to complete most of the tasks that an average user is expected to do with computers (word, presentation and spreadsheet processing, audio and video playing and editing, Internet browsing, e-mailing, etc.). In that respect, it differs from "commercial" operating systems that don't provide much besides access to the computer system. Linux is the most advanced operating system in the world: as of November 2015, 494 or 98.8% of the 500 world's fastest supercomputers use the Linux kernel. (See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/TOP500)
GalliumOS is different from other Linux distributions in that it is designed for Chromebooks. But then, why would you want Linux on your Chromebook?
Reasons To Install Linux on a Chromebook
Chromebooks are lean and mean computing machines that are designed to work in conjunction with the Internet. A Chromebook "keeps" hardly any software on its internal drive; what the user needs to complete a task is downloaded from Internet - often for a price - and is not kept inside the computer when the task is done. This is why most Chromebooks are equipped with a very small solid-state drive (SSD), typically 16 or 32 gigabits (Gb). Often, this SSD is not upgradable and most of time, the random-acess memory (RAM) is not either: Chromebooks' SSD and RAM are frequently hard-wired to the motherboard. With Linux installed on a Chromebook, applications stay inside the computer and can be accessed any time, with or without Internet.
The often talked about constraint about installing Linux on a Chromebook is the SSD size. This SHOULD NOT be a deterrent when installing Linux. 16GB is plenty to install GalliumOS; all your music, photos, videos and other paraphernalia that don’t fit on the static drive can go to an external drive. On all Chromebooks, you have the luxury of at least three ports: two USB and one SD. Without spending much, you could have at any given time 768 Gb of memory on your Chromebook with three 256 Gb external drives! Even a Thunderbird mail profile, for instance, can sit on an external drive without any significant speed penalty. All your Linux OS and programs can sit nicely on the 16 Gb internal drive with room to spare.
Furthermore, quite a few Chromebooks now can be upgraded with a larger capacity static drive. For a little investment, you could end up with a powerful laptop for a fraction of the price that you would normally pay for something other than a Chromebook.
Things to check first
You probably don’t want to venture into uncharted territory, so you need to do a few checks before you start converting your Chromebook computer to a GalliumOS Linux machine. There are many benefits with using Linux, notably the ability to run thousands of excellent applications without ever accessing the Net, but you have to be reasonably certain that your Chromebook will allow you to do that. The first place to find out whether your Chromebook is supported for a GalliumOS install is: https://wiki.galliumos.org/Hardware_Compatibility
Here are a few explanations about this table:
Model: The basic idea is that it is not advisable to attempt a GalliumOS install unless your Chromebook Model is listed in this table.
Hardware ID: The Hardware ID is something that you will read in your Chromebook when you create a Recovery Media for your specific model (see below); this is valuable information.
Processor Name: The Processor name (Sandy/Ivy Bridge, Bay Trail, Haswell, Broadwell, etc.) is something else you will need when you select the GalliumOS version you have to download. See: https://galliumos.org/download.html
Firmware: That is one of the crucial change that may, or may not, be required to make your Chromebook a GalliumOS Linux machine. The firmware modification requirement is indicated in the column titled “…with custom firmware?”. Fortunately, this firmware change is a fairly straightforward operation thanks to the work of John Lewis. Basically, it boils down to opening a terminal page in Chrome on your Chromebook (we will get to that) and writing, or copying and pasting, a short script.
(NOTE: Although there is still the possibility to dual-boot (GalliumOS and ChromeOS), this is not discussed here as it is assumed that the user has a limited, small static drive on which space doesn’t really allow two Operating Systems. In this tutorial, we will dedicate the entire drive space to Linux.)
I strongly suggest that you note all the data regarding the Model name, Hardware ID, Processor Name and Firmware modification requirement specific to your Chromebook. You will need it later.
Now that you have determined that you can give yourself the go-ahead for a GalliumOS installation on your Chromebook, let’s do first a little bit of house-cleaning and preparation.
You may have a few files on your Chromebook drive that you wish to keep. You should transfer all those files onto an USB flash drive or an SD drive. Remember that everything on your drive is going to be wiped out when you install GalliumOS Linux.
Chromebook Recovery Media
You need to create a Chromebook Recovery Media in case you wish, further down the road, return your Chromebook to its original state. To do that, you need to download the Chromebook Recovery Utility from the Google Web Store (it is in your ChromeOS Menu). This software will allow you to create a recovery media for your Chromebook. You need a 4GB USB flash drive or SD card that does not contain data that you wish to keep because this drive too is going to be totally erased to receive the recovery data.
Once the Recovery icon is in your Chromebook Launcher, click on it to start the Recovery Media creation process. Go past the first page by clicking on Get started to access the next page titled “Identify your Chromebook”. This page contains important information regarding your specific Chromebook model number.
There is a line that states: “For this Chromebook, enter XYZ XXX-XXX-XXX-XXX”.
Write down this MODEL NUMBER for your Chromebook. It could be something like:
YUNA D25-B3B-B4A-A4M, etc.
Everything is important in this number, so keep it in a safe place; add it to the other info you already wrote down (Model, Hardware ID, Processor, firmware required, etc.). The first word could be something like: BANJO, CANDY, FALCO, GNAWTY, MONROE, PARROT, YUNA, etc. You notice that this first word is the Hardware ID that you see on the “GalliumOS Support by Model” table that we have already talked about and is displayed at:
You need the whole number, not just the first word, to create a recovery utility; you also need the name if you ever need a “shellball” to bring your Chromebook back to its original state. We’ll get back to that, but for now, make sure you have this whole number kept somewhere.
In the Identify your Chromebook page of the Recovery Utility, the number we just talked about extensively is already written in blue in the Recovery window; just click on it and it will print automagically in the window below. But if you were to create a recovery utility for ANOTHER Chromebook, this is the window where you would enter the specific model number as outlined above. Since Google is nice to you, you could also select the Chromebook from a list that you call up by clicking on “Select a model from a list”. It is safer however to use the model number.
Click on Continue to proceed to the actual Media creation. Just follow the instructions.
Create your GalliumOS USB or SD installation drive
The Operating System you want to install, GalliumOS, must be available to you on a “bootable” USB or SD drive that you need to create. You therefore proceed to https://galliumos.org/download where you download the GalliumOS version appropriate to your Chromebook architecture (Haswell, Broadwell, Bay Trail, etc.). These are the Processor names that are displayed in the Hardware Compatibility List; you should have the name specific to your Chromebook available, if you wrote it down as was suggested earlier.
This GalliumOS installation file you download is an .iso file. The beauty of a file of this type is that you have on a single file all the bits and pieces required to install a Linux operating system with everything you need on a computer. Once this file has been downloaded, however, it needs to be decompressed and put on an USB flash or SD drive. To do that, it is recommended you use an application called Unetbootin that is available for Linux, Windows and Mac. It can be downloaded at:
Once Unetbootin is installed on your computer, you plug in an USB or SD drive and follow the indications in Unetbootin. It is recommended you use a 4GB USB drive. It has been found that Chromebooks may not boot with large capacity USB drives. Also, an USB 3 drive may also not be willing to boot. Do it cheap and simple!
Now, you should have two drives (USB or SB) to keep: one with your Chromebook Recovery Media; one with GalliumOS. Make sure you label them properly and don’t misplace or erase them.
Prepare the Chromebook
For this step, please see https://wiki.galliumos.org/Installing/Preparing
Select the procedure according to your Chromebook architecture
This Wiki page explains how a Chromebook has to be prepared for installation according to the architecture of its processor (CPU). You notice that the architecture names (Sandy Bridge, Haswell, Broadwell, etc.) for which a specific installation is described are the same as the Processor names we already saw at https://wiki.galliumos.org/Hardware_Compatibility
If you followed our indications so far, your Chromebook architecture should have be noted somewhere.
For every architecture, the GalliumOS Installing/Preparing tutorial refers to SeaBIOS firmware. BIOS stands for Basic Input/Output System. It is a tiny – but very important – program (firmware) that tells your computer, among other things, where to look to find an operating system that will make it go. A special type of BIOS called SeaBIOS is required to install Linux on a Chromebook. Some Chromebooks come with SeaBIOS already installed and you don't have to worry about it. In some cases however, depending on your CPU architecture, you will have to “flash” (replace) the BIOS firmware on your machine. This is a very delicate operation that you don't want to botch up as you may "brick" your Chromebook. ("Bricking" means that you made your computer worth no more than a brick of the same weight!) Luckily, John Lewis’ scripts to flash Chromebook BIOS makes it very easy. Before we get there, however, you need to put your Chromebook in developer mode.
Get into Developer Mode
The process to put the device in developer mode is very well described in the GalliumOS Installing/Preparing tutorial. Just in case you are looking the Refresh key, it is the 4th one from the top left; it shows a clockwise arrow. It takes about 15 minutes to put your Chromebook into Developer Mode. After enabling Developer Mode, you’ll be able to access a Linux terminal from within Chrome OS and do whatever you like. Once you are in Developer Mode, your Chromebook is “rooted”; it means that you have access to the “root” of the computer system. It also means you have to tread carefully… Note that some older Chromebooks have a physical switch that you'll have to flip in order to turn on Developer Mode. If you aren't sure, look up instructions for your specific device on enabling Developer Mode.
Once you are in Developer Mode, your Chromebook still works normally. The only difference is a white window that displays for 30 seconds when you start and that you can bypass by entering CTRL+D. (“D” for Developer). After you are in Developer mode, it is suggested you configure your Internet access normally and enter your Gmail name and password, just to reassure you that your Chromebook is still alive and well. Also, for the continuation of the operation, you will need Internet access.
Remove the Write Protection, if required
The BIOS is write-protected through physical and software means. If you have a Sandy Bridge / Ivy Bridge or a Bay Trail Chromebook, you will have to remove the physical write protection. To do that, you have to open the computer and, generally, remove a screw. You will find the information on how to do that through a quick search in Google.
Access the “shell”
Let’s assume now that you have restarted your Chromebook in Developer mode, entered your password and accessed the Chrome browser in your Chromebook. The next step is to open a Terminal window. This will take you to the heart of your computer. The Terminal is the screen where you talk to the innards of your machine through commands and scripts. (Just like you see in the movies when the hacker is about to steal government secrets!) You can do all that in a Chromebook. (Not steal government secrets, but access a terminal window!) You just have to press CTRL+ALT+T. (Kind of an anticlimax, isn’t it?)
In this black screen, at the prompt, you type: “shell” (without quotation marks) and hit Enter, just as indicated in the GalliumOS Installing/Preparing Tutorial. From now on, follow this tutorial for your appropriate CPU architecture where it is stated:
“and hit enter. Now you should be in bash. You’ll have a prompt that looks something like this.”
Follow John Lewis’ script carefully. I recommend that you cut and paste it into the terminal. Remember that the Terminal is just another tab in the Chrome browser; you can access any other Internet site in other tabs and flip through tabs to Cut and Paste whatever you want.
After the John Lewis’ script has been run, you continue with the GalliumOS Installing/Preparing Tutorial with a little caveat. Where it states: “Reboot your computer, plug in your GalliumOS USB and start installing!”, it should be the other way round. You must first plug in your GalliumOS USB drive, then reboot your computer.
When the Chromebook starts and the blue Unetbootin page comes up, it shows three options and states that you edit options with the Tab key. Actually, you don’t want to edit options at this stage; you only want to select one of them. You change selections with the Arrow keys and press Enter to select. I suggest you select the second one “Gallium Live Image and Installer”.